Leading theologian: change canon law to correct papal errors

Fr Aidan Nichols said that Pope Francis’s teaching had led to an ‘extremely grave’ situation

A prominent theologian has proposed reforming canon law to allow a pope’s doctrinal errors to be established.

Fr Aidan Nichols, a prolific author who has lectured at Oxford and Cambridge as well as the Angelicum in Rome, said that Pope Francis’s exhortation Amoris Laetitia had led to an “extremely grave” situation.

Fr Nichols proposed that, given the Pope’s statements on issues including marriage and the moral law, the Church may need “a procedure for calling to order a pope who teaches error”.

The Dominican theologian said that this procedure might be less “conflictual” if it took place during a future pontificate, rather as Pope Honorius was only condemned for error after he had ceased to occupy the chair of Peter.

Fr Nichols was speaking at the annual conference in Cuddesdon of an ecumenical society, the Fellowship of St Alban and St Sergius, to a largely non-Catholic audience.

He said the judicial process would “dissuade popes from any tendency to doctrinal waywardness or simple negligence”, and would answer some “ecumenical anxieties” of Anglicans, Orthodox and others who fear that the pope has carte blanche to impose any teaching. “Indeed, it may be that the present crisis of the Roman magisterium is providentially intended to call attention to the limits of primacy in this regard.”

Fr Nichols has written over 40 books of philosophy, theology, apologetics and criticism. In 2006 he was appointed to Oxford University’s first lectureship since the Reformation in Catholic theology.

He has not publicly commented on Amoris Laetitia until now, but was a signatory to a leaked letter from 45 priests and theologians to the College of Cardinals. The letter asked the cardinals to request a clarification from the Pope to rule out heretical and erroneous interpretations of the exhortation.

In his paper Fr Nichols mentioned some of the same concerns as the letter: he noted, for instance, that Amoris Laetitia could seem to imply that the monastic life was not a higher state than marriage – a view condemned as heretical by the Council of Trent.

The exhortation has also been interpreted as arguing that the divorced and remarried can receive Communion without endeavouring to live “as brother and sister”. This contradicts the perennial teaching of the Church, reaffirmed by Popes St John Paul II and Benedict XVI.

Fr Nichols said that this interpretation, which Pope Francis has reportedly approved, would introduce into the Church “a previously unheard-of state of life. Put bluntly, this state of life is one of tolerated concubinage.”

But Fr Nichols said the way in which Amoris Laetitia argued for “tolerated concubinage” (without using the phrase) was potentially even more harmful. He quoted the exhortation’s description of a conscience which “recognizes that a given situation does not correspond objectively to the demands of the Gospel” but sees “with a certain moral security…what for now is the most generous response.” Fr Nichols said this seemed to say “that actions condemned by the law of Christ can sometimes be morally right or even, indeed, requested by God.”

This would contradict the Church’s teaching that some acts are always morally wrong, Fr Nichols said.

He also drew attention to the statement – presumably referring to attempts to live continently – that someone “may know full well the rule yet…be in a concrete situation which does not allow him or her to act differently and decide otherwise without further sin”. Fr Nichols noted that the Council of Trent had solemnly condemned the idea that “the commandments of God are impossible to observe even for a man who is justified and established in grace.” Amoris Laetitia seemed to say that it is not always possible or even advisable to follow the moral law.

If such general statements about moral acts were correct, Fr Nichols said, “then no area of Christian morality can remain unscathed.”

He said that it would be preferable to think that the Pope had been merely “negligent” in his language, rather than actively teaching error. But this seemed doubtful, given the reports that the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith had suggested corrections to Amoris Laetitia, and was ignored.

Cardinal Raymond Burke has publicly discussed making a formal correction of the Pope. However, Fr Nichols said that neither the Western nor Eastern Codes of Canon Law contain a procedure “for enquiry into the case of a pope believed to have taught doctrinal error, much less is there provision for a trial.”

Fr Nichols observed that the tradition of canon law is that “the first see is judged by no-one.”  But he said that the First Vatican Council had restricted the doctrine of papal infallibility, so that “it is not the position of the Roman Catholic Church that a pope is incapable of leading people astray by false teaching as a public doctor.

“He may be the supreme appeal judge of Christendom…but that does not make him immune to perpetrating doctrinal howlers. Surprisingly, or perhaps not so surprisingly given the piety that has surrounded the figures of the popes since the pontificate of Pius IX, this fact appears to be unknown to many who ought to know better.” Given the limits on papal infallibility, canon law might be able to accommodate a formal procedure for inquiring into whether a pope had taught error.

Fr Nichols said that bishops’ conferences had been slow to support Pope Francis, probably because they were divided among themselves; but he said that the Pope’s “programme would not have got as far as it has were it not the case that theological liberals, generally of the closet variety, have in the fairly recent past been appointed to high positions both in the world episcopate and in the ranks of the Roman Curia.”

Fr Nichols said that there was “a danger of possible schism”, but that it was unlikely and not as immediate a danger as “the spread of a moral heresy”. The view which Amoris Laetitia apparently contains would, if it passed without correction, “increasingly be regarded as at the very least an acceptable theological opinion. And that will do more damage than can easily be repaired.”

He concluded that the law of the Church will live on, because of those who “give the law life by faithfulness in love”.

>>>  www.catholicherald.co.uk

Kardinaal Burke werpt licht op de komende formele correctie

In een nieuw interview vertelt Kardinaal Burke na lange tijd weer over de ‘formele correctie’ van Amoris Laetitia. Hij geeft nog steeds niet aan wanneer die zal plaatsvinden, maar wel hoe die er zal uitzien. Ook zegt hij opnieuw dat een formeel schisma niet kan, maar hij zegt nu dat men wel in schismatieke toestand kan leven indien men verzaakt aan de Leer van Christus.

Burke geeft aan dat de correctie “noodzakelijk” is. “Het lijkt me dat de essentie van de correctie vrij eenvoudig is,” zei Burke. “Aan de ene kant geeft men de duidelijke Leer van de Kerk weer; aan de andere kant wordt er weergegeven wat er effectief wordt onderwezen door de Roomse Paus. Indien er tegenstrijdigheid is, wordt de Roomse Paus opgeroepen om zijn eigen onderricht te bevestigen in gehoorzaamheid aan Christus en het Magisterium van de Kerk.

Lees hier verder

Cardinal Burke: Here’s what the formal correction of Pope Francis will look like

August 16, 2017 (LifeSiteNews) — Since Pope Francis has chosen not to respond to the five questions on whether his Exhortation Amoris Laetitia conforms to Catholic teaching, a “correction” of the ways his teaching departs from the Catholic faith is “necessary,” said Cardinal Raymond Burke in a new interview. 

The Cardinal, who is one of the four who signed the dubia almost one year ago asking the Pope to clarify his teaching, explained in an interview with The Wanderer how the process for issuing a “formal correction” would proceed.

“It seems to me that the essence of the correction is quite simple,” Burke explained.

“On the one hand, one sets forth the clear teaching of the Church; on the other hand, what is actually being taught by the Roman Pontiff is stated. If there is a contradiction, the Roman Pontiff is called to conform his own teaching in obedience to Christ and the Magisterium of the Church,” he said.

“The question is asked, ‘How would this be done?’ It is done very simply by a formal declaration to which the Holy Father would be obliged to respond. Cardinals Brandmüller, Caffarra, Meisner, and I used an ancient institution in the Church of proposing dubia to the Pope,” the Cardinal continued.

“This was done in a very respectful way and not in any way to be aggressive, in order to give him the occasion to set forth the Church’s unchanging teaching. Pope Francis has chosen not to respond to the five dubia, so it is now necessary simply to state what the Church teaches about marriage, the family, acts that are intrinsically evil, and so forth. These are the points that are not clear in the current teachings of the Roman Pontiff; therefore, this situation must be corrected. The correction would then direct itself principally to those doctrinal points,” he added.

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Left to right, top then bottom: Cardinals Raymond Burke, Joachim Meisner (now deceased), Walter Brandmüller and Carlo CaffarraLifeSite

Last year the four Cardinals went public with their questions (dubia) after the Pope failed to give them a response. They had hoped that the Pope answering their five yes-or-no questions would dispel what they called the “uncertainty, confusion, and disorientation among many of the faithful” stemming from the controversial exhortation.

In June, the four released a letter to the Pope in which they unsuccessfully asked him for a private audience to discuss “confusion and disorientation” within the Church as a result of the exhortation.

The exhortation has been used by various bishops and bishops’ groups, including those in ArgentinaMaltaGermany, and Belgium, to issue pastoral guidelines that allow Communion to be given to civilly-divorced-and-remarried Catholics living in adultery. But bishops in Canada and Poland have issued statements based on their reading of the same document that forbids such couples to receive Communion.

Pope Francis has yet to enter into dialogue with the three remaining cardinals.

Burke said in the interview with The Wanderer that the Pope is the “principle of unity of the bishops and all the faithful.”

“However, the Church is being torn asunder right now by confusion and division,” he said.

“The Holy Father must be called on to exercise his office to put an end to this,” he added.

If the Pope continues in his refusal to answer the dubia, the “next step would be a formal declaration stating the clear teachings of the Church as set forth in the dubia,” said Burke.

“Furthermore, it would be stated that these truths of the Faith are not being clearly set forth by the Roman Pontiff. In other words, instead of asking the questions as was done in the dubia, the formal correction would be stating the answers as clearly taught by the Church,” he added.

It is widely held that the Cardinals, following the doctrines of the Church on marriage, confession, and the Eucharist, would answer the five yes-or-no questions in this way:

  1. Following the affirmations of Amoris Laetitia (nn. 300-305), can a habitual adulterous couple be granted absolution and receive Holy Communion? NO
  2. With the publication of Amoris Laetitia (cf. n. 304), does one still need to regard as valid the teaching of St. John Paul II in Veritatis Splendor that there are “absolute moral norms that prohibit intrinsically evil acts and that are binding without exceptions?” YES
  3. After Amoris Laetitia (n. 301), is it still possible to affirm that habitual adultery can be an “objective situation of grave habitual sin?” YES
  4. After the affirmations of Amoris Laetitia (n. 302) are the teachings of John Paul II in Veritatis Splendor still valid that “circumstances or intentions can never transform an act intrinsically evil by virtue of its object into an act ‘subjectively’ good or defensible as a choice”? YES
  5. After Amoris Laetitia (n. 303) does one still need to regard as valid the teaching of St. John Paul II’s encyclical Veritatis Splendor “that excludes a creative interpretation of the role of conscience and that emphasizes that conscience can never be authorized to legitimate exceptions to absolute moral norms that prohibit intrinsically evil acts by virtue of their object?” YES

Cardinal Burke said that faithful Catholics who are frustrated with Pope Francis’ leadership of the Church must not entertain any notion of “schism.”

“People talk about a de facto schism. I am absolutely in opposition to any kind of formal schism — a schism can never be correct,” he said.

“People can, however, be living in a schismatic situation if the teaching of Christ has been abandoned. The more appropriate word would be the one Our Lady used in her Message of Fatima: apostasy. There can be apostasy within the Church and this, in fact, is what is going on. In connection with the apostasy, Our Lady also referred to the failure of pastors to bring the Church to unity,” he added.

>>>  https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/cardinal-burke-heres-what-the-formal-correction-of-pope-francis-will-look-l

Wat is het verschil tussen RIFD en NFC?

anoukweb

Wat is RFID?

Maschinenjunge, Formaat RFID tag (2008), CC-BY 3.0 gelicenseerd

RFID staat voor Radio Frequency Indentification, via radiosignalen wordt het mogelijk een voorwerp te herkennen. RFID tags zijn zeer kleine chips met een indentificatiecode die op afstand worden uitgelezen. Door deze code worden objecten, dieren en personen herkend. Eigenlijk zijn de RFID tags een soort streepjescode maar worden ze anders afgelezen. Hiervoor is een tag, lezer en een antenne nodig. Meestal zie je de RFID tag niet zitten dus dit is allemaal erg compact en goed weg gewerkt. Hierdoor zijn ze ideaal ter preventie van winkeldiefstal.

Amal Graafstra, Onderhuidse RFID tag (2005), CC-BY 2.0 gelicenseerd

Een aantal mensen hebben er ook een onderhuids, deze is erg klein en kan als een soort piercing in worden gebracht. Hierop kan data worden opgeslagen.
Er zijn 2 soorten tags namelijk passieve en actieve tags. Actieve tags hebben een batterij zodat er tot…

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